**How to Explain Almost Everything: The Power of Probability in Everyday Life by Dr. Robert A. Hitlin**

**Excerpt from “CHAPTER FOUR: How to Calculate Probabilities: Four Basic Concepts”:**

Now that we have reviewed how probability thinking developed, and

some of the fields that are based on it, we will begin to calculate

probabilities. Many textbooks on probability use complicated formulas and

mathematical notations that can discourage the average person from delving

further into the subject. However, the basic ideas of probability can be

understood without advanced mathematics. We will begin by exploring

simple situations and solving them using only division and multiplication.

**What is Randomness?**

The most fundamental concept in probability theory is randomness.

“Random” is a term that is used in everyday conversation, but is often misunderstood.

Understanding what randomness is, and is not, is the key to

figuring out probability situations and making probability thinking work

for you.